APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS [Hon. Michael A. Ponsor, U.S. District Judge] [Hon. Henry J. Boroff, U.S. Bankruptcy Judge]
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Selya, Circuit Judge.
Before Selya, Circuit Judge, Souter,*fn1 Associate Justice, and Lipez, Circuit Judge.
This bankruptcy case involves a dispute over attorneys' fees. Resolving this dispute requires us to address a question of first impression at the appellate level concerning the propriety of so-called "fee-only" plans in Chapter 13 bankruptcy cases. This is an issue that has divided the bankruptcy courts. Compare In re Paley, 390 B.R. 53, 59 (Bankr. N.D.N.Y. 2008) (rejecting fee-only plan as contrary to spirit and purpose of Bankruptcy Code), and In re Dicey, 312 B.R. 456, 459-60 (Bankr. D.N.H. 2004) (same), with In re Elkins, No. 09-09254-8, 2010 WL 1490585, at *3 (Bankr. E.D.N.C. Apr. 13, 2010) (stating that "[t]here are many permissible reasons to file [fee-only] chapter 13 cases"), and In re Molina, 420 B.R. 825, 829-33 (Bankr. D.N.M. 2009) (upholding good faith of fee-only plan). The bankruptcy court in this instance concluded that such plans are per se proffered in bad faith and disallowed virtually all attorneys' fees. On an intermediate appeal, the district court upheld the bankruptcy court's ruling.
The matter has now been appealed to this court. We have had the benefit of briefing (including the helpful submission of an amicus) and oral argument. After careful consideration, we hold that fee-only plans are not per se in bad faith. Consequently, we reverse the order appealed from and remand for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.
The background facts are easily stated. The debtor, Wayne Eric Puffer, had amassed unsecured liabilities totaling almost $15,000. His anticipated disposable income amounted to approximately $100 per month. He concluded that he could never satisfy his increasingly impatient creditors and decided to consider the advisability of bankruptcy protection. With this in mind, he visited the appellant, L. Jed Berliner, an attorney specializing in bankruptcy matters, in January of 2007.
After some discussion, the appellant presented the debtor with two options. First, he could file for straight bankruptcy under Chapter 7, which is the conventional course when an individual has debts that dwarf his income and assets. See 11 U.S.C. §§ 701-784. Chapter 7 proceedings are straightforward; they usually can be concluded within a matter of months. A successful Chapter 7 application discharges virtually all debts, including any unpaid legal fees. See id. § 727.
The second option that the appellant presented to the debtor was somewhat less conventional. He suggested that the debtor could file for Chapter 13 protection. See id. §§ 1301-1330. Chapter 13 proceedings must be kept open for a minimum of 36 months unless all affected debts are to be fully satisfied within a shorter period of time. See id. § 1325(b)(4). If successful, a Chapter 13 proceeding allows a debtor to discharge his debts over time, provided that he submits a plan, which must be approved by the bankruptcy court, for satisfying some of his creditors. See id. §§ 1321-1322, 1328.
The appellant stated in substance that he would not represent the debtor in a Chapter 7 proceeding unless and until the debtor paid him, up front, the whole of his anticipated legal fees (which he estimated to be around $2,300). If, however, the debtor chose the Chapter 13 alternative, he would not have to pay all of his legal fees immediately but, rather, could pay them over time as part of the Chapter 13 plan. The appellant estimated that the fees associated with a Chapter 13 proceeding would total $4,100.
At that moment, the debtor did not have sufficient funds on hand to pay the legal fees requested for a Chapter 7 filing. Faced with the appellant's unwillingness to handle a Chapter 7 matter, the debtor opted to seek Chapter 13 protection, engaged the appellant as his counsel for this purpose, and paid him $500 on account.
The debtor, counseled by the appellant, prepared the necessary paperwork. As part of that paperwork, he submitted a Chapter 13 plan to the bankruptcy court. See id. §§ 1321-1322. The plan called for the debtor to pay into the bankruptcy estate $100 per month for 36 months (a total of $3,600). Of that amount, only about $300 (or about 2% of the roughly $15,000 owed by the debtor) would be available for distribution to general creditors.*fn2 Conversely, the appellant would receive through the plan more than $2,900 for legal services. The remainder of the bankruptcy estate (about $400) would cover the fees of the standing trustee. See id. § 1326(b)(2). A Chapter 13 plan of this genre is colloquially known as a "fee-only" plan because it pays the debtor's lawyer and the trustee their professional fees but leaves the general creditors holding an empty (or nearly empty) bag.
The bankruptcy court rejected the proposed Chapter 13 plan on the grounds that neither the debtor's Chapter 13 petition nor the plan itself was submitted in good faith. See id. § 1325(a)(3), (7).*fn3 In reaching this conclusion, the court cited In re Buck, 432 B.R. 13, 21-22 (Bankr. D. Mass. 2010), which held that fee-only Chapter 13 plans are per se submitted in bad faith.
After rejecting the Chapter 13 plan, the bankruptcy court gave the debtor three options: he could (i) amend his Chapter 13 plan; (ii) convert his bankruptcy case to Chapter 7; or (iii) dismiss the case entirely. The debtor elected the second option and converted his case to Chapter 7. He ultimately received a discharge under that chapter.
Meanwhile, the appellant moved the bankruptcy court to award him $2,872 in fees and expenses arising from his representation of the debtor in the Chapter 13 proceedings. See 11 U.S.C. § 330(a)(4)(B). The appellant anticipated that this emolument would be paid out of the Chapter 13 estate, which the debtor had endowed monthly from the filing of the Chapter 13 plan until the date of the conversion to Chapter 7. The bankruptcy court awarded the appellant only $299 (the amount that it cost to file the debtor's converted Chapter 7 petition). Because the appellant had already collected a $500 retainer in advance of the filing of the Chapter 13 petition, this order effectively required him to disgorge more than $200. The court grounded its order on the proposition that an attorney is not entitled to professional fees for time spent preparing a Chapter 13 plan that he knows or has reason to know is submitted in bad faith. See In re Buck, 432 B.R. at 22-24.
The appellant sought review of the fee order in the district court. See 28 U.S.C. § 158(a). The trustee opposed the appeal, and the district court affirmed the disputed ...